Wine is an Alcoholic drink made from Fermented Grapes
During fermentation, yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and transforms it to alcohol.
Different grapes, yeasts, and production methods creates different styles of wine.
Vitis Vinifera is the most used grape family because it produces higher quality wines and better aromas.
Red wines are made from black grapes (dark-colored red grape varieties).
Red wines get their colors and flavors from the grape skin while the skins soakes in the juice.
White wines are made from white grapes (light-colored white grape varieties).
White wines get their flavors from the grape juice. Grapes are pressed quickly to drain the juice away from the skins.
Rosé wine gets its pink color from a very short contact with the skin (a few hours).
Most rosé wines are made from red grape varieties.
Sparkling wine can be made in any any color (white, rosé, and red).
Sparkling wines undergoes a second fermentation to create carbon dioxide, which creates the bubbles.
Dessert Wines are sweet wines with a high level of sugar.
Fortified wine are wines with added spirit, usually brandy.
Grape skins have wild yeast growing on them and it starts a spontaneous fermentation.
The cultured yeast is made in laboratory and the most common species is Saccharomyces Cerevisiae.
Commercial yeasts are flavor-active: they influence the outcome creating a "yeast bouquet".
While in the New World it is allowed to add acid during winemaking, it is forbidden in the Old World.
Many wines are not vegan and using fining agents such egg whites and gelatin is a common practice.