Chardonnay originates from Burgundy in France.
A common name is Bourgogne Blanc or White Burgundy.
Climats are the ultimate expression of Bourgogne terroir.
A Climat is the name of an elite vineyard and its importance lies in the consistency of the quality.
A Climat benefits of special weather, exposure, orientation, altitude, human expertise (savoir-faire), history, tradition, archeology, geology, oenology, viticulture, toponimy, hydrometry, biodiversity.
Each of the 1200 Climats (684 Premiers Crus) is vinified separately.
A Climat classified as Premier Cru (literally, first growth) has higher status than a Village or a Region and has a unique, recognizable taste.
Two millenia after the first vines were planted, the Climats of the Burgundy were registered as a UNESCO heritage site on July 4, 2015.
A clos is a vineyard enclosed by dry-stone walls.
These walls, built in the Middle Ages, protected the vines from the herds of animals which used to pass freely through the villages.
Some clos are among the most reputed Climats such as Clos de Vougeot, Clos de Bèze, and Clos des Lambrays.
A Lieu-dit is a topographical or historical name created by the Land Registry of France.
Lieu-dit and Climat are two terms often confused even in Burgundy.
The main difference is that a Climat is a vineyard while a Lieu-dit is a geographical area (with or without vines).
You can find a few "Lieux-dits" within one "Climat" and a "Climat" covering only a part of a "Lieu-dit".