Different grapes, yeasts, and production methods create different styles of wine.
Vitis Vinifera is the most used grape family because it produces higher quality wines and better aromas.
Red wines are made from red grapes:
White wines are made from white grapes:
Grape skins have wild yeast growing on them and it starts a spontaneous fermentation.
The cultured yeast is made in laboratory and the most common species is Saccharomyces Cerevisiae.
Commercial yeasts are flavor-active: they influence the outcome creating a "yeast bouquet".
From Greek: Anthos (flower) and Kyanous (dark blue).
Anthocyanins (or Anthocyans) are color pigments found in plants, flowers, berries, fruit and vegetables. Depending on the PH, the colors can be red, orange, violet, purple, blue, or black.
Picture by Harvard.Edu
Wine grapes are very rich in Anthocyanins.
Scientific studies show benefical effects with antioxidative and antimicrobial effect, improve visual, neurological and cardiovascular health.
Anthocyanins is an antioxidant that fight the effects of aging and oxidative stress.
Plants produce Anthocyanins as a protective mechanism: resistance to predators (bugs, birds, rodents) and environmental stressor (UV rays, cold temperatures, drought).
Sulphur is the most common antioxidant used in wine production. It can be added to the wine at any stage of the winemaking process. Sulphur kills any unwanted bacterias or yeasts that are leftover from the winemaking process.
The purpose of using a fining agent is to clarify the wine, soften bitterness or tannins, remove solid compounds, oxidisable polyphenols, and unwanted proteins.
The fining agent reacts with wine components and forms a new complex that can be removed from the wine.
Using fining agents such as egg whites and gelatin is a common practice.