Cards of Wine

Sparkling Wines

Typical Flavors


Lemon
Citrus
Apple
Apple
Pear
Pear
Strawberry
Strawberry

Fermentation Flavors

Vanilla
Vanilla
Bread
Bread
Nuts
Nuts

Citrus, Apple, Pear, and Strawberry are typical flavors.

Fermentation notes of Vanilla, Yeast and Nuts.

French Sparkling

Champagne
Méthode Champenoise
Méthode Traditionelle
Crémant
Crémant d'Alsace
Crémant de Bordeaux
Crémant de Bourgogne
Crémant de Die
Crémant de Jura
Crémant de Limoux
Crémant de Loire
Crémant de Savoie
Crémant Rosé
Mousseux
Blanc de Blancs
Blanc de Noir

Italian Sparkling

Alta Langa
Asti Spumante
Franciacorta
Franciacorta Rosato
Frizzante
Greco di Tufo Spumante
Glera
Metodo Classico
Moscato d'Asti
Oltrepò Pavese
Pignoletto
Prosecco
Spumante
Trentodoc

Other

Cava (Spain)
Cava Rosado (Spain)
Bairrada DOC (Portugal)
Espumante (Portugal)
Sekt (Germany)
Sekt (Austria)

Sugar Levels

Regulation
EC 607/2009
Sugar
gram/litre
Calories
/glass
Brut Nature (Brut Zero)0-33
Extra Brut 0-6 5
Brut 0-12 7
Extra Dry (Extra Sec, Extra Seco) 12-17 10
Dry (Sec, Seco) 17-32 20
Demi (Semi) 32-50 30
Doux (Sweet, Dulce) 50+ 30+

Food Pairing


Aperitif
Aperitif
Salads
Salads
Tapas
Tapas
Sandwitch
Sandwitch

Crab
Seafood
Oysters
Oysters
Salmon
Salmon
Sushi
Sushi

French Fries
Fries
Chicken
Chicken
Turkey
Turkey
Pork
Pork

Egg
Egg Dishes
Pasta
Pasta
Risotto
Risotto
Soft Cheese
Soft Cheese

You can drink sparkling wines to almost everything:

Fried Fish. Smoked Salmon. Sushi.
Serrano or Prosciutto Ham.
Potato Chips. Pancakes.

Méthode Champenoise

Méthode Champenoise is the method used to produce French Champagne.

Wine Glass

With Méthode Champenoise (the production method of Champagne), the first fermentation takes place in a tank, and a second fermentation takes place in the bottle.

Adding CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) is not allowed.

The second fermentation starts by adding yeast (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae) and sugar to the bottle, and after about 1 year, the bubbles are completely developed.

The legend credit a Benedictine monk, Dom Pérignon (1639-1715), for inventing sparkling wine when he bottled a wine before fermentation, but the oldest recorded sparkling wine is Blanquette de Limoux from 1531.

The method is used for:

  • French Champagne
  • French Crémant
  • Spanish Cava
  • Italian Franciacorta
  • German Sekt
  • Portuguese Espumante

Méthode Champenoise is now reserved (by EU) for wines produced in Champagne:

CountryMust Use
EnglandTraditional Method
FranceMéthode Traditionnelle
SpainMétodo Tradicional
PortugalMétodo Tradicional
ItalyMetodo Classico
Metodo Tradizionale
GermanyKlassische Flaschengärung

French Sparkling

Champagne

Champagne is associated with nobility, royalty, parties, money, and victories.

According to EU restrictions, Champagne is reserved for French wines from the Champagne region.

"The King of Bubbles" is made from the grapes Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, and Pinot Meunier, and comes in both white and rosé styles.

Read More ...


Crémant

The production method of Crémant is he same as Champagne, but often with other grapes.

These are the AOCs (Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée):


Mousseux

Mousseux is a sparkling wine, made either by the Charmant metod (Secondary Fermentation in a tank), or by adding Carbon Dioxide - CO2.

These are some AOCs:

  • AOC Blanquette de Limoux. (Languedoc)
  • AOC Bourgogne Mousseux. (Burgundy)
  • AOC Bugey Mousseux. (Savoie)
  • AOC Saumur Mousseux (Loire).
  • AOC Vouvray Mousseux (Loire).

Read More ...

Spanish Sparkling

In Spain, Sparkling wine is called Cava, which means "Cellar".

Cava used to be called "Spanish Champagne", but this is no longer permitted in EU, since Champagne is a protected French name.

The production method is the same as for Champagne, but with other grapes:

  • Macabeu
  • Parellada
  • Xarel-lo.

Cava is an important part of the Catalan and Spanish tradition. It is consumed at any celebration (baptisms, marriages, banquets, dinners, and parties).

Cava DO (Denominación de Origen) is not region based. Cava can be made anywhere in Spain, as long as it follows the production rules.

Anyway, 95 percent of all Cava is made in the Penedès wine region in Catalonia.

Cava has 3 aging styles:

  • Cava
  • Cava Riserva
  • Cava Gran Riserva

Italian Sparkling

In Italy, Sparkling wines are called Frizzante or Spumante.

Frizzante

Frizzante wines have light bubbles (2.5 - 3.5 bars of pressure).

The most famous Italian Frizzante wines are:

Prosecco
Moscato d'Asti

Most Frizzante wines are made using the "Charmat" method.


Charmat

The Charmat method is quicker and cheaper than the Champagne method.

With this method, wine, yeast, and sugar are mixed into a steel tank. The tank is sealed, and when the yeast consumes sugar, it releases bubbles in the wine.


Spumante

Spumante wines are fully sparkling (4 - 6 bars of pressure).

The most famous Italian Spumante wines are:

Asti Spumante
Prosecco Spumante

Italian Spumante wines are produced either with the Charmat method or Metodo Classico.


Metodo Classico

Metodo Classico is the Italian name for wines produced the same way as Champagne.

Alta Langa DOCG
Franciacorta DOCG
Greco di Tufo DOCGG
Oltrepò Pavese DOCG
Trentodoc DOC

Sparkling Sekt

In Germany and Austria Sparkling wines are called Sekt.

Sekt is a sparkling wine that is primarily produced in Germany and Austria, where it has the role as an alternative to expensive Champagne and Spanish Cava.

Normally, Sekt is made using the "Charmat" method, like Prosecco, but some producers also use the "Champagne" method to produce high quality Sekt.

German Quality Grades

German Sekt Lowest quality
Sekt using German grapes
Sekt A Medium quality
Sekt using grapes from one of 13 named regions
Winzersekt High quality
Made with the "Champagne" method
Sekt made with single origin Riesling
Aged in the bottle on the yeast for minimum 9 months

The most common grape is Riesling.

Austrian Quality Grades

Austrian Sekt Lowest quality
Sekt using Austrian grapes
Klassic Good quality
Sekt using grapes from a major wine region
Aged in the bottle on the yeast for minimum 9 months
Reserve High quality
Made with the "Champagne" method
Harvested and pressed in a single wine region
Aged in the bottle on the yeast for minimum 18 months
Grosse Reserve Best quality
Made with the "Champagne" method
Harvested and pressed in a single municipality
Aged in the bottle on the yeast for minimum 30 months

The most common grapes are Gruner Veltliner and and Blaufrankisch.

Portuguese Sparkling

In Portugal, Sparkling wine is called Espumante. It has 3 quality levels:

VEQPRD

(Vinho Espumante de Qualidade Produzido em Região Determinada).

Método Tradicional wines, marked with the year of harvest, and stamped as VEQPRD. These wines are only produced in Bairrada DOC, south of Vinho Verde.

VFQPRD

(Vinho Frisante de Qualidade Produzido em Região Determinada).

Regional sparkling wines made with the Traditional, Charmat, or Transfer Method, in Douro, Ribatejo, Minho, Alentejo or Estremadura.

VQPRD

(Vinho de Qualidade Produzido em Região Determinada).

Sparkling wines made by the Traditional, Charmat, or Transfer method, anywhere in Portugal.


Espumoso

Espomoso is a low level sparkling wine, made by adding Carbon Dioxide - CO2.