Cards of Wine

What is Wine?

Wine is an Alcoholic Drink

made from

Fermented Grapes


During fermentation, Yeast consumes the Sugar in the grapes and transforms it into Alcohol and Carbon Dioxide.


Sugar+Yeast = Alcohol+CO2

Different grapes, yeasts, and production methods create different wine styles:

Red Wine
White Wine
Rosé Wine
Sparkling Wine
Dessert Wine
Fortified Wine


Red Wine

Red wines are made from black grapes (dark-colored red wine grape varieties).

Red wines get their colors and flavors from the grape skin while the skins soakes in the juice.

The common alcohol content of a red wine is between 12% and 15%.



White Wine

White wines are made from white grapes (light-colored white grape varieties).

A few white wines are made from black grapes.

White wines get their flavors from the grape juice. Grapes are pressed quickly to drain the juice away from the skins.

The common alcohol content of a white wine is between 10% and 14%.



Rosé Wine

Rosé wines get their pink color from a very short contact with the skins (a few hours).

Most rosé wines are made from red grape varieties.



Sparkling Wine (Bubbles)

The bubbles in sparkling wines come from Carbon Dioxide (CO2) trapped in the bottle.

There are 3 methods to create bubbles in wine:

  • Secondary Fermentation in the Bottle
  • Pressurized Tank
  • Carbon Dioxide Injection

Sparkling wine can be made in any any color (white, rosé, or red), but the most common are white or rosé. Exceptions are Lambrusco and Sparkling Shiraz.



Dessert Wine

Dessert wines are sweet wines with high levels of sugar.

The common alcohol content of a dessert wine is less than 10%.



Fortified Wine

Fortified wines are wines with added spirit, usually brandy. As a consequence they have an alcohol content between 15-22%.

The sweetness of fortified wines, varies from dry to sweet.



Still Wine

"Still Wine" means nonsparkling wine (without Carbon Dioxide).

The majority of the wines on the marked are still wines (red, white, rosé, dessert, and fortified wines).


Wine Names

Most wines are named after the grape variety, but wines are also named after the region of origin:

Region Name

Grape Name

Bordeaux
Cabernet Sauvignon
Burgundy Red
Pinot Noir
Chianti
Sangiovese
Rioja
Tempranillo
Burgundy White
Chardonnay
Sancerre
Sauvignon Blanc

VineyardsMap

Wine growing areas in EU. Source: Eurostat.

Alcohol can be addictive. Drink in moderation.

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