Cards of Wine

Red Wine Vinification

Harvesting
Harvesting

Harvesting

Black grapes are harvested and sorted.
Crushing

Crushing

After harvesting, the grapes are crushed to release the must.
Fermentation

Fermentation

Yeasts transform the red grape juice into wine (sugar into alcohol).
Pressing

Pressing

Pressing separates the juice from the skin, seeds, and stems.
Maturation

Maturation

Maturation refers to the time after fermentation.
Aging

Aging

Aging refers to the changes in wine after bottling.

Level 1 / Level 2

This a simplified description of how to make a red wine.

A more complete description is found in Level 2.


Harvesting

Harvesting

Quality red wines are produced from hand-picked grapes

The first step to produce a red wine, is to harvest black grapes.

Common black grapes are: Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir, Merlot, Syrah/Shiraz.


Sorting

Sorting

Grapes are sorted before crushing

After harvesting, grape clusters are sorted for quality.

Unripe, diseased, and damaged grapes, bugs and leaves are removed.


Crushing

Crushing

Grapes are crushed to release the must
"Vinum mustum"="Young wine"

After sorting, the grapes are crushed to crack the skins and release the must.

Must is the crushed grape juice that contains flesh, skins, seeds, and stems.


Alcoholic Fermentation

Alcoholic fermentation transforms grape juice into wine.

Yeasts transform the sugar in the juice into alcohol (and CO2).

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Fermentation in stainless steel does not add ekstra aromatic compounds.

Fermentation in oak barrels adds secondary flavors (vanilla, cedar, smoke).

Fermentation

Feeding crushed Pinot Noir grapes into the fermenter.


The Cap

During fermentation, a cap floats to the top (skins, stems and seeds). If the cap is left on the top, the extraction of colors, tannins, and aromas will be reduced.

As a daily procedure, the cap is mixed back into the juice through 2 techniques: Pumping Over and Punching Down.

Fermentation

The cap of grape skins that forms on fermenting red wine.

Pumping Over

Pumping over (French:Remontage) means pumping wine from the bottom of the tank and pour it over the top of the fermenting must to submerge the skins and to release carbon dioxide.

Punch Down

Punch down (French:Pigéage) means breaking up the cap on the surface of the fermenting wine, and push it back and let the juice extract more color, tannins, and flavors from it.


Pressing

Pressing

Pressing is the major difference between white and red wines

Pressing separates the liquid from the solids (skins, seeds, stems).

Red wines are fermented with the solids and pressed after fermentation.

White wines are pressed before fermentation to avoid contact with the solids.


Maturation

Oak

Maturation refers to the period after Fermentation before Bottling

Maturation refers to the period after fermentation and before bottling.

Some wines are made for early drinking, but most red wines can benefit from maturation and aging.

Clarification and stabilization is also a part of this phase.

In Steel Tanks

Maturation in steel or fiberglass tanks does not change the aromas of the wine.

In Oak

Maturation in oak changes the flavors of wine. Grape aromas fade and oak flavors appears (vanilla, cedar, smoke).


Aging

Aging

Aging can improve the quality of wine

Aging (aka cellaring) refers to the changes in wine after bottling.

Aging has proven to improve the characteristics of wine and stimulate the birth of new aromas mouth feeling of tannins are rounded and smoothed out.


Red Wine Vinification


Grape Crusher Oak Tank Wine Press Oak Barrels Bottles
Crushed
for must
Fermented
for alcohol
Pressed
for wine
Maturated
for taste
Aged
for taste

Red wine is fermented WITH the skins.
Red wine is fermented BEFORE pressing.

White Wine Vinification


Grape Crusher Wine Press Steel Tank Oak Barrels Whitewine Bottles
Crushed
for Must
Pressed
for Juice
Fermented
for Alcohol
Maturated
for Taste
Aged
for Taste

White wine is fermented WITHOUT the skins.
White wine is fermented AFTER pressing.

Alcohol can be addictive. Drink in moderation.

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