Soil Composition

  • Alluvial made from mineral deposits left by running water. Mix of clay, silt, sand, gravel. Rich in organic material that makes it fertile.
    Wine Regions: Napa Valley (Rutherford, Yountville).
  • Calcareous high in fossilized shells
  • Chalk
  • Granite
  • Jory
  • Limestone
  • Loam is a warm mix of sand, silt and clay. Sometimes too fertile for quality winemaking.
    Wine Regions: Barossa Valley.
  • Marl
  • Sandstone
  • Schist
  • Shale
  • Silt is finer than sand. In lower Austria it is called Loess, a type of wind-blown silt made of silica.
    Wine Regions: Lower Austria (GrĂ¼ner Veltliner).
  • Tufa
  • Volcanic made from cooling and solidification of magma (lava). Drains well, retains heat, high in iron (red or black earth). Can impart ashy or rusty taste.
    Wine Regions: Sicily, Canary Islands.

What is Terroir?