Cards of Wine

Méthode Champenoise

Wine Glass

Méthode Champenoise is the method used to produce French Champagne.

The Method

After primary fermentation and bottling, a second fermentation is started by adding the yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae and sugar to the bottle.

After about 1 year, the Champagne bubbles are completely developed.

The method is used for:

New Names

Méthode Champenoise is now reserved (by EU) for wines produced in Champagne.

Other regions must use other terms:

EnglandTraditional Method
FranceMéthode Traditionnelle
SpainMétodo Tradicional
PortugalMétodo Tradicional
ItalyMetodo Classico
Metodo Tradizionale
GermanyKlassische Flaschengärung

Blanc de Blanc

Blanc de Blanc

Blanc de Blanc means "White from Whites".

Only White grapes are used in the production.

The typically grape is Chardonnay.

It can also be another grape like Pinot Blanc, or a blend.

In Spain they use Spanish grapes like Macabeo, Parellada, and Xarel-lo.

In Germany they often use German Riesling.

Blanc de Blanc

Blanc de Noir

Blanc de Noir meanis "White from Blacks".

Only Red grapes are used in the production.

The typical grape is Pinot Noir.

It can also be another grape like Pinot Meunier, or a blend.

In Spain they often use the local grape Monastrell.

French Champagne

Champagne is a generic term for sparkling wine. But according to EU restrictions, it is reserved for wines produced in the Champagne region of France.

Champagne has been associated with nobility and royalty since the 17th century. Today it is also very poular in the middle class, associated with parties, money, and victories.

Champagne must be produced from specified grapes, by specified vineyard methods, pressing methods, and fermentation methods.

Méthode Champenoise (Fermentation in the Bottle) must be used to produce the bubbles. Adding CO2 - Carbon dioxide is not allowed.

The main grapes used are Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier, and Chardonnay.

The legend credit Dom Pérignon (1639-1715), a French Benedictine monk, for inventing sparkling wine, when he erroneously bottled the wine before fermentation, but the oldest recorded sparkling wine is Blanquette de Limoux from 1531.

Spanish Cava

Cava is an important part of the Catalan and Spanish tradition.

It is consumed at any celebration (baptisms, marriages, banquets, dinners and parties).

Cava used to be called "Spanish Champagne", but this is no longer permitted in EU, since Champagne is a protected French name.

The production method for Cava is the same as for French Champagne, but with other grapes (Macabeu, Parellada, and Xarel-lo).

Cava has a DO (Denominación de Origen) in Catalonia, but Cavais also produced in other Spanish regions.

Cava has 3 aging styles:

Italian Prosecco

Prosecco is one of the most famous Italian wines.

Light and fruity, tank-produced bubbles from Northern Italy have had a boom sale in recent years.

It has taken the role as an alternative to expensive Champagne and Spanish Cava.

Prosecco is made using the "Charmat" method. This method is quicker and cheaper than Champagne method. With the Charmant method, acidic wine, yeast, and sugar is mixed into large steel tanks. The tank is sealed, the yeast consumes the sugar, while releasing bubbles that carbonate the wine.

It is produced in the Conegliano Valdobbiadene DOCG wine district.

The main grape is Glera.

Sugar Levels

EC 607/2009
Brut Nature (Brut Zero)0-33
Extra Brut 0-6 5
Brut 0-12 7
Extra Dry (Extra Sec, Extra Seco) 12-17 10
Dry (Sec, Seco) 17-32 20
Demi (Semi) 32-50 30
Doux (Sweet, Dulce) 50+ 30+